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Solar System, Mass Distribution and Structure of Planets

The first determination regarding the formation theory of the Solar System is the heliocentrism theory, which claims that the Earth revolves around the Sun. The term solar system was first used in 1704. The most common formation theory of the solar system is the nebula hypothesis, which is based on the gravitational collision of giant molecular clouds. Many stars, including the Sun, were formed by this cloud collision.

According to the Nebula Hypothesis, the gas that forms the Solar system is larger than the Sun, and the Sun and the planets will die as soon as they are formed. As the Sun begins to age, it will cool and become a red giant, then it will break out of its outer shell and turn into a white dwarf, also called a stellar corpse. Some of the planets will follow the Sun, and the rest will be thrown into interstellar space, and those that follow the Sun will disappear in due time.

We have known it since childhood, but we still wanted to list the planets of the Solar system according to their proximity to the sun, these are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The order from largest to smallest is: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury.

The largest planet in the solar system: Jupiter

The smallest planet in the solar system: Mercury

The farthest planet from the sun: Neptune

The closest planet to the Sun: Mercury

The hottest planet in the solar system: Venus

The coldest planet in the solar system: Uranus

Let’s Briefly Recognize the Planets in the Solar System:

Mercury: Mercury has no atmosphere, it is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest planet of the solar system. It appears very faint from Earth.

Venus: It is the best observed and brightest planet from Earth. Since it is close to the sun at sunrise and sunset, it can be easily seen from the earth with the naked eye. It is popularly known as the Shepherd’s Star. There are many craters and active volcanoes on its surface, and its entire surface is covered with sulfuric acid clouds. It rotates in the opposite direction to all other planets in the solar system.

Earth: Structurally, it has a flattened appearance at the poles and a swollen appearance at the equator. Appearing blue from space, Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun.

Mars: Has seasons like Earth; but each takes twice as long. It is the second planet whose orbit is closest to Earth’s orbit, after Venus. The surface of Mars consists of low plains and high hills, just like our moon. Additionally, many spacecraft have been sent to Mars to find the possibility of life.

Jupiter: It is the largest planet of the solar system and its surface is covered with colorful clouds. These clouds consist of hydrogen, helium, ammonia and water vapor. It has a very faint ring and 63 moons. The names of its four largest moons are Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io.

Saturn: This planet with an atmosphere is famous for its gas rings. There are gaps between these rings, these gaps are known as the Cassini gap. It has 47 known satellites.

Uranus: It is the third largest planet of the solar system. The thin and dark ring around it is actually composed of 10 separate rings. The axis of rotation is inclined at nearly 90 degrees, which is a very interesting situation. The planet’s orbital period is 84 years, and one of the poles remains towards the Sun for approximately 21 years. Therefore, this region experiences a long summer (also day) while the other pole experiences a long winter (also night) lasting 21 years. It has 27 known moons.

Neptune: Its atmosphere is similar to Uranus’ atmosphere and its chemical structure, but the clouds on Neptune are more prominent. In various observations made from Earth, rings of different densities have been observed around it. It has 13 known moons.

The mass distribution rate in the Solar System is quite interesting. The mass of the Sun, which takes the leading role, is 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilograms. It alone constitutes 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system. The rest of the system consists of the 8 planets we mentioned, 185 moons, a different belt consisting of icy objects (Kuiper Belt) and asteroids consisting of small rocks and metals.

How Long Does a Year on Earth Last on Other Planets?

If we look at how long a year lasts on each of the planets in Earth days, the data are as follows:


  • 88 Earth days,


  • 225 Earth days,


  • 365 days,


  • 687 Earth days,


  • 4,331 Earth days (12 Earth years),


  • 10,747 Earth days (29.4 Earth years),


  • 30,589 Earth days (84 Earth years),


  • 59,800 Earth days (165 Earth years)

Internet access from space: Starlink Project

Starlink is a satellite project by the American company SpaceX to provide global satellite internet access. The system consists of thousands of small constellations working in conjunction with ground stations. As of July 2023, there are 4,519 satellites in Earth orbit. SpaceX, which aims to create a mega team satellite, plans to send 42 thousand satellites into orbit at the end of the project. The project aims to create a $1 trillion internet access market worldwide to achieve SpaceX founder Elon Musk’s dream of establishing a colony on Mars. The project was first announced in January 2015. In the statements, it was stated that the main carrier is capable of supporting enough bandwidth to carry 50% of all communication traffic and will meet a significant demand for low-cost global broadband Internet. According to the news published in March 2020, 6 satellites can be produced per day. Phase 1 has been completed with the satellites sent as of May 26, 2021. It is envisaged that the second phase satellite transmissions will be placed at an altitude of 570 km (350 miles) with an inclination of 70°. In the first place, users who wanted to take advantage of the affordable internet service that Starlink would provide had to use devices called user terminals to connect to Starlink. Mobile access also became possible with the launch of second generation satellites some time after its launch. Second-generation satellites include cellular antennas. This now makes Starlink satellites available for mobile access. Starlink satellites are of great importance not only for individual use but also for military areas. SpaceX is expanding its Starlink satellite technology for military areas with a new formation called Starshield. The company states on its website that “Starlink is designed for consumer and commercial use, while Starshield is designed for government use.” Building on the data encryption Starshield uses with its Starlink system, SpaceX notes that it uses “additional high-security cryptographic capability to host stealth payloads and securely process data.” If we look at the recent wars in the world, we can say that satellites are extremely important for countries in the internet and various military fields.

Coolant Leak Detected On Russia’s Nauka Science Module

At about 1 p.m. EDT (17:00 UTC) Oct. 9, NASA’s mission control in Houston alerted the ISS crew to the situation and asked for visual confirmation and a point of origin : “We’re seeing flakes outside. We need a crew [member] to go to the cupola, look toward the aft side — we think windows five or six — and confirm any visual flakes,” mission control asked NASA astronaut Jasmin Moghbeli, one of seven people aboard the outpost as part of Expedition 70. Additionally, it was stated that this was due to a leak coming from the radiator. Although the flakes was slightly visible from the cameras on the module, it was difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the leak. That’s why European Space Agency astronaut Andreas Mogensen said he took photos to send to Earth for analysis. This leak was also the third leak in a year. It is known that Soyuz MS-22 and Progress MS-21 also experienced this problem in December 2022 and February 2023. After this problem occurred, NASA flight controllers delayed two planned spacewalks to examine data regarding the leak. The first spacewalk was on October 12; The second one was planned to take place on October 20. NASA stated that new dates will be announced later. It is stated by NASA that the leak in the spare radiator where the leak occurred has since been stopped, and the main radiator continues to operate without affecting the crew and ISS operations.

A Famous Astrophysicist Vibert Douglas

Based on today’s date, we would like to tell you about a Canadian astronomer. Vibert Douglas; She was born in Montreal on December 15, 1894. Since both her parents died the year. She was born, she lived in London for a time with her brother George Vibert Douglas and her grandmother. Growing up, she was always interested in science, but felt that her gender was an obstacle. While in high school, her application to join a science club was rejected simply because she was a woman. Her brother helped her overcome this problem by leaving the door ajar and allowing Douglas to sit outside the classroom to listen to the lectures. She graduated from high school at the top of her class and received a scholarship to McGill University. In 1912, she started studying at McGill with honors in mathematics and physics, but she interrupted her education in her third year with the beginning of the First World War. Her brother George was drafted into the army as an officer. She was stationed near London, England, and took his family, including Douglas, with her. Vibert Douglas was later invited by a family friend to join the war effort. She decided to work as a statistician at the War Office. Even though she worked under difficult conditions, she persevered and received the highest salary among all temporary female civil servants in the National service.

She returned to Montreal in 1920 and received bachelor’s and master’s degrees. She received education from the important astronomer of the period, Arthur Eddington, at Cambridge University. She received a doctorate in astrophysics in 1926. She later joined the faculty at McGill University and taught physics and astrophysics. In 1939, she moved to Queen’s University in Kingston and served as Dean. She worked as Professor of Astronomy from 1946 to 1964 and was instrumental in the admission of women to engineering and medicine departments. During World War II, it required all new students to take nursing courses. She was also instrumental in admitting women to engineering and medical departments.

She became the female president as a result of her active membership process in the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada.

She researched the spectra of A and B type stars and the Stark effect. She became the first Canadian president of the International Astronomical Union and represented Canada at the UNESCO conference. She was named one of the 10 Women of the Century by the National Jewish Women. She passed away on July 2. There is also a crater on Venus named after her.

This Week In Our Art Corner

As we enter the cold winter days, we wanted to share a poem with you in the art section of this issue. Have a good read.


The night is darkening round me,

The wild winds coldly blow;

But a tyrant spell has bound me

And I cannot, cannot go.

The giant trees are bending

Their bare boughs weighed with snow.

And the storm is fast descending,

And yet I cannot go.

Clouds beyond clouds above me,

Wastes beyond wastes below;

But nothing drear can move me;

I will not, cannot go.

Emily Brontë